Water | Theme 2.0 | Azadi Ka Amrit Mahotsav, Government of India.




Water is a life-sustaining natural resource. However, availability of water resources is limited and distributed unevenly, making many vulnerable to lack of it.

The Government of India, under the leadership of Hon’ble Prime Minister Narendra Modi, has launched several unique campaigns such as Har Khet Ko Pani, Nadi Utsav, Amrit Sarovar to increase awareness about water conservation and revival.

Mentioned below are the areas that constitute ‘Water’ in India and people shall be made aware about the same


Raising awareness about the history and present conditions of India’s extensive network of rivers.

  • History of Indian Rivers:Awareness about the origination of Indian rivers, how they contributed to the present forms of maritime trade channels, awareness about different civilizations living around that river etc.
  • Cultural Significance of Rivers:Awareness about river-based celebrations (Ganga Utsav, Nadi Utsav), religious significance of rivers in India, art forms and crafts by communities situated around rivers etc.
  • Water Pollution:Awareness about the adverse effects of deposition of debris across riverbanks, literacy about impacts of industrial waste, awareness about maintaining pollution control measures, importance of a proper sewerage system, importance of making ‘Raksha Samitis’ or ‘Nadi Rakshaks’, awareness about community participation to revive water bodies, knowledge about floods and their causes, wastewater recycling methodologies etc.
  • Communities Living around Rivers: Knowledge about communities situated around rivers and how they derive their livelihood and sustenance from them, traditions and art forms of these communities, variety of wildlife and vegetation around riverbanks etc.
  • Economic Activities around Rivers:River tourism and water sports (for example, activities promoted in Rishikesh), awareness about business opportunities related to fishing, literacy about developing hydel power, awareness about agricultural benefits around a water body, knowledge about mineral extraction etc.


As per report by National Mission for Clean Ganga, India receives around 4000 billion cubic meters of rain every year; however, India ranks very low in the world in terms of capturing rain—capturing only 8% of its annual rainfall . Hence the importance of groundwater harvesting. Raising awareness about such aspects shall help conserve water.

  • Ancient Groundwater Harvesting Methods:awareness of ancient groundwater harvesting techniques like Kunds, Jhalaras, Bawris, Johads etc., ancient water irrigation systems etc.
  • Conservation of Groundwater:Literacy about reducing wastage of water, re-using used water, re-charging groundwater, recycling wastewater; knowledge about ways to save crops during drought years using pond water; benefits of forming informal water committees such as Paani Panchayat; learning water conservation through experiential learning methods and games; awareness about the advantage of pond construction at empty places and need of community pond conservation; awareness about conservation techniques such as: rural rain centers, rainwater harvesting structures (fish-cum-paddy), sharing groundwater amongst farmers, storing water in steep slopes for cultivation, watershed management techniques etc.
  • Sanitation and Hygiene:Safe drinking water, adverse impacts of poor sanitation (waterborne diseases), knowledge about relationship between water quality and hygiene, literacy about water clogging and how it impacts the quality of water etc.

Status and importance of traditional water conservation system in present scenario, Central Soil and Materials Research Station, New Delhi, National Mission for Clean Ganga (NMCG) (2019)

Amrit Sarovar

As a part of Azadi Ka Amrit Mahotsav, Hon’ble Prime Minister launched the mission on ‘Amrit Sarovar’ on 24th April 2022 with a vision to spread awareness about water conservation. The objective of the mission is to improve and rejuvenate 75 water bodies in each district of the country.

  • Uses of Amrit Sarovar:Advantages of constructing local water body in a district, awareness about regulating stream flow, awareness about lake habitat, knowledge about aquatic and semi aquatic plants and animals, awareness about impacts of floods and droughts, ways to replenish groundwater etc.
  • Possible Initiatives Resulting from Amrit Sarovar: Rejuvenation of other existing water bodies in districts, restoration of ecological and aquatic life, enhancement of water-based livelihood, improved conservation and sanitation of water bodies etc.
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